For Part  - "Why?" - see here.
For Part  - "Sources" - see here.
For Part  - "Types" - see here.
For Part  - "How?" - see here.
For the PostScript, see here.
For now let’s return to that contentious statement that we are all, in fact, theologians. The word ‘theology’ is made up of two Greek terms: theos (θεός) and logos (λόγος). The former we translate as ‘God’, and the latter we translate as ‘word’. Theology quite literally concerns itself, therefore, with speech regarding the divine.  By its widest definition, the slightest engagement with the subject of religion or religious belief forces you to do theology. The term itself, however, has had a colourful history. Prior to Christianity, it was used by the Greeks to refer to the speech of a poet announcing the deity.  The term was also employed by Philo (a Jewish writer who died around 50AD) to describe Moses, seeing as he literally proclaimed the message of God.  Later, the early Church would use theologia to describe not only knowledge concerning God, but also their experience of Him. In this sense, the word ‘theology’ has been used to refer to speech from or about the divine, but it has also been used 'doxologically' – to refer to matters of worship and religious experience.
Shall we therefore establish a basic, elementary definition before we proceed? Let’s agree on this: Theology concerns itself with speech about God, with the speech of God, and with the variety of experiences that are said to derive from Him. Some of us may choose to study theology in an academic context. Others may explore theology in an ecclesial setting, whilst others take up the interest on a purely private basis. But one thing is certain: although the vast majority of us are not even aware of our interest, we are all theologians. In what follows we'll explore what this means :)
 I will, however, supplement this article with a handful of footnotes, providing extra detail for the especially curious.
 By the same token, it may also concern itself with the speech of the divine. Later, we’ll discuss what this might mean in greater detail.
 See Plato’s Republic 379a.5-6. ‘Theology’ was also used by Aristotle to refer to the metaphysical discipline of philosophy, as it pertained to divine matters (see Aristotle’s Metaphysics 1025a.19 & 1064b.3). For these details and more, consult Wolfhart Pannenberg’s Systematic Theology: Volume 1 (T&T Clark, 1991).
 See Philo’s De Vita Mosis 2.115.